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Mr. B - Geography

Geography

TermDefinition
Environment Everything that surrounds us, both natural and man-made (artificial)
Ecology The relationship between living things and their unique environment.
Adaptation Learning to live in one's unique environment
Geography The study of the Earth and man's spatial relationships.
Culture A people's whole way of life, including both natural (instinct) and learned behaviors.
climate The average weather in a particular region over an extended period of time. (Decades, centuries or more) Ex: Pleistocene period.
Hemisphere Half the globe; NOrthern, southern, eastern or western hemishpere. From the Greek "hemi" meaning half, and "spheres" meaning ball or globe.
Equator imaginary line at the widest point around the middle of the Earth halfway between the North and South poles. 0 degrees latitude.
Parallels lines of latitude
Prime Meridian Imaginary line that marks 0 degrees longitude, running from the North pole through Greenwich, England, to the South pole.
globe round model of the Earth
meridians lines of longitude
Tropic of Cancer imaginary line at 23.5 degrees north latitude
Tropic of Capricorn imaginary line at 23.5 degrees south latitude
International Dateline imaginary line at 180 degrees longitude that marks that separates 2 calendar days
Tropic Zone zone between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn that get the same amount of sun year-round
Geographer A trained professional who studies the Earth, its history, and man's spatial relationships
Location Answers the question "Where is it?" by including either a very specific geographic address (Absolute) or a more general address(Relative)
Place Identifies the distinctive physical and/or human characteristics that make a place different from any other place.
Movement Traces the re-location of people, animals, plants, trade, resources, ideas, weather, tectonic plates, etc. Explains how and why movement occurs due to Push and Pull factors.
Human-Environmental Interaction (HEI) Focuses on the relationship between people and their environment; how people adapt to, or change the environment.
Region An area of Earth's surface that shares one or more characteristics (ex: climate, language, ethnicity, economic resources or trade)
Absolute Location A very specific, detailed address for a point on Earth's surface, such as (41 Degrees N, 70 Degrees West)
Relative Location Address is accurate, but vague, lacking elements of direction, distance, or proximity to another location.
Cultural Diffusion The movement or spread of ideas (religion, government, style, music/arts) or behaviors from one cultural region to another.
Urban related to cities and dense population centers; city
Rural related to sparsely populated, usually agricultural areas; country
Suburban related to settlement areas between urban and rural areas
Vector straight line extending in one direction; also called a bearing or a heading
axis imaginary line around which a planet turns
Cartographer Professional map maker
Arctic Circle Region above 66 Degrees North Latitude
Antarctic Circle Region below 66 Degrees South latitude
middle latitudes Regions between the tropic zone and the Arctic Circle in the North or the Antarctic Circle in the South
Push factors Negative forces or conditions that drive people and animals to leave or migrate from a geographical area.
Pull factors Positive forces that attract or benefit people or animals to migrate.
Compass Rose Located on a map, it identifies which direction is North
Legend or Key Color-coded box that identifies symbols on a map.
Scale Measurement ratio on a map that helps determine distance. (ex: 1 inch = 1,000 miles)
assimilation A culture being absorbed (possibly by conquest) into a more dominant culture; blending into a new culture.
Solstice Either of the two times in the year, when the sun reaches its highest (summer) or lowest (winter) point in the sky at noon, marked by the longest and shortest days.
Equinox From the Latin meaning "equal night". Twice yearly event (Spring and Fall) when the sun is directly over the Equator and both hemispheres get 12 hours of light and dark.
coordinates The latitude(North-South) and longitude (East-West) address of an absolute location
proximity Closeness or distance relative to another location, point, or landmark
bearing or heading or directon another term for a compass direction (ex: North by Northeast, or steering a course baring 2-7-0 degrees.)
Cardinal Points or directions North, South, East, West
Intermediate points or directions NE, SE, NW, SW
time zones 24 man-made sectors on Earth's surface to denote accurate time
Greenwich Mean Time Denotes the time along the Prime Meridian of longitude
Created by: bottleguy
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