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PSSA Terms

TermDefinition
Alliteration the repeating of beginning consonant sounds in words in a sentence.Ex. sweet smell of success, a dime a dozen, bigger and better, jump for joy
Antonym a word that is the opposite of another word.
Antagonist main character working against the protagonist. Sometimes not a person but an obstacle such as a force of nature, society or inner conflict.
Author's purpose the author's reason or intention for writing the selection. Always ask youself- is the purpose to entertain, to inform, or persuade.
Autobiography the story of a person's life written by the person
Biography the story of a person's life written by another person
Characterization the method an author uses to communicate information about the characters.
Climax the moment when the action of the story comes to its highest point. This usually occurs at the end of the story just before the resolution.
Conclusion the end of the selection
Conflict struggle between opposing forces in literature.
Context clues information within the reading selection that helps the reader figure out the meanings of challenging words
Dialogue the actual words/ conversation that the character says to another character.
Evaluate the examine and judge; to say if something is good or bad
Expository text text written to explain and convey information about a specific topic.
Fable a narrative intended to convey a moral or lesson to the reader
Fiction any story that is a product of imagination rather than fact
Figurative language language that cannot be taken literally since it was written to create speacial effect
Flashback technique in which the author interrupts the plot of the story to recreate an incident of an earlier time
Foreshadowing technique in which the author provides the reader with clues about events that will happen later in the story
Generalizations when you make assumptions about different events and/or characters apply them to new situations.
Genre catagories of literature such as biography, mystery, historical, sports, and romance.
Homophone or homonym two or more words that are pronounced alike but have a different meaning
Hyperbole an exxaggerated statement used to make a stong effect.
imagery words and phrases used specifcally to help the reader to imagine each of the senses.
inference reading between the lines. taking what the author worte and adding it to what you already know to make an assumption.
irony a difference between what is expected and what actually happens.
Metaphor a comparison between two unlike things without using the word like or as.
Mood the overall feeling created by the author's words.
Narrator the speaker of the story
nonfiction writing that is true and the purpose is to inform.
onomatopoeia words whose sounds express their meaning. Ex. buzz crash cland hiss boom hush
plot the events that occur in the story beginning with the setting and ending with the resolution
point of view perspective from which the story is being told
prefix letters added to the beginning of a word to change its meaning.
protagonist the central character in a story that is the good guy or the one with whom the reader identifies
personification giving lifelike characteristics to inanimated objects
resolution occurs at the end of a story and includes how the conflict is solved
setting the time and place where the action of a story occurs.
simile a comparison between two unlike things by using the word like or as .
suffix letters placed at the end of a word to change its meaning
summary retelling what happened in order in your own words
supporting details details that support or back up the main idea of the passage.
symbol an image, object, character, or action that stands for an idea beyond its literal meaning.
synonym two or more words that have highly similar meanings.
theme the underlying message of the selection that the author is trying to convey or communicate to the reader.
tone the clues of the story that suggest the writer's own attitude toward elements in the stoy.
voice the author's style the quality that makes his or her writing unique
Compare and contrast compare means to show similarities, contrast means to show differences
Conflict: character vs. character a conflict between characters, such as a family feud, trouble with a bully, or romantic difficulties
Conflict: character vs. nature conflict between a character and a force of nature, such as a tornado
Conflict: character vs. self an internal conflict that takes place in a character's mind. (character may have to decide between right and wrong or between 2 solutions to a problem.)
fact vs. opinion a fact can be proven to be true, an opinion is someones feelings
point of view (limited 3rd Person) the story is told from the viewpoint of a character. As a result the reader is only exposed to what that character experiences.
point of view (1st person) the narrator uses I, me, we and other first-person pronouns to relate his thoughts, experiences, and observations in a work of fiction or nonfiction.
root word a word to which prefixes and/or suffixes are added
analyze to explain in great detail
essay a multi-paragraph writing
text structure: compare and contrast the author organizes the text by telling how two or more things are alike and different
text structure: problem and solution the author presents a problem and provides steps that lead to the solving of the problem; the solution
text structure: sequential the author tells all events in order from first to last
text structure: desciption the author gives great detail about a topic
text structure: cause and effect the author presents something that causes something else to happen
line a series of words in a poem
stanza a group of lines in a poem
prose writing made up of sentences and paragraphs (not poetry)
chronological when events happen in order from earliest to the last (like sequential)
Created by: 2014HeiLeiA
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