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PerkyPerk Bio Voc

Biology Critical Vocabulary

TermMeaning
Homeostasis Ability of a cell or organism to maintain equilibrium or internal balance
permeability rate of flow of a liquid or gas through a porous material
osmosis water moving from an area of high to low concentration
deoxyribonucleic acid double-stranded nucleic acid; contains nitrogen bases A, T, C, and G; found in nucleus of a cell
ribonucleic acid single-stranded nucleic acid; contains nitrogen bases A, U, C and G; mRNA (messenger RNA) tRNA (transfer RNA)
genetic mutation any change in nitrogen base sequence
replication process where genetic material or single-celled organism makes a copy
transcription messenger RNA (mRNA) made from DNA; occurs in nucleus
translation amino acid chain made from mRNA; occurs at ribosome
Taxonomy classifying organisms into natural relationships
monerans bacteria; organized into two kingdoms, Archaebacteria and Eubacteria
protist Eukaryotic unicellular organism divided into 3 groups; animallike, plantlike, and funguslike
virus particle made up of nucleic acid wrapped in protein coat; unable to reproduce without a host cell; not considered living
speciation evolutionary development of a new biological species
phylogeny evolutionary development of an organ or other of an organism
adaptation a change that improves a species ability to survive
mutualism relationship between two living organisms where both species benefit
parasitism relationship between two living organisms; good for one and bad for the other
commensalism relationship between two living organisms; one is helped and the other is unaffected
predation capturing prey to maintain life`
meiosis cell division that makes cells with half number of chromosomes
mitosis cell division where each new cell looks like the parent cell
diploid having a pair of each type of chromosomes; 2n
haploid contains half the normal chromosome number; n
autotrophic organisms that can make its own food from light or chemical energy
heterotrophic an organism that cannot make its own food; must comsume other organisms
prokaryotic organisms with no nucleus
eukaryotic organism that contains nucleus
adenosine triphosphate major source of energy; ATP
organelles a structure within a cell that performs a specific function
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