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MIS 330 Exam 1

Chapter 1,3,12

Information System A set of people, procedures, and resources that collects, transforms, and disseminates information within an organization.
What is an information system? Any organized combination of data resources, policies and procedures, communication networks, people, hardware and software
Roles of IS in business Support of business processes and operations, support of business decision making, support ot strategies for competetive advantage.
Components of an IS hardware, software, data, procedures, and people
Most important component of an IS YOU
Second most important component of an IS Data
e-commerce buying, selling, marketing, and servicing of products, services, and information over a variety of computer networks.
types of information systems manual, informational, formal
e-business the use of internet technologies to work and empower business processes, e-commerce, and enterprise collaboration within a company and with its customers, suppliers, and other business stakeholders
Enterprise collaboration systems involve the use of software tools to support communication, coordination, and collaboration among members of networked teams and workgroups
Operations support systems produce a variety of information products for internal and external use; they do not emphasize the specific information products that can be best used by managers
Transaction processing systems important examples of operation support systems that record and process the data resulting from business transactions
Batch processing transactions data are accumulated over a period of time and processed periodically
Real-time (online processing) data are processed immediately after a transaction occurs
What three major roles do information systems play in today’s business environment? support of business operations, support of managerial decision making, support of strategic organizational advantage
System Boundary defines the system and distinguishes it from anything else
System Variable quantity or item controlled by the decision maker
System parameter value or quantity that cannot be controlled (ex the cost of raw materials)
3 Basic functions of a system input, processing, output
Processing data into information data, computer, info, manager, decision
Processing activities to transform data into information typically includes calculating, comparing, sorting, classifying, summarizing
What system classification do most business system fall under? open and adaptive
TPS Transaction processing system
PCS Process Control Systems monitor and control physical processes
ECS Enterprise Collaboration Systems enhance team and workgroup communications and productivity and include applications that are sometimes called office automation systems
MRS, IRS, MIS Management Information Systems provide information in the form of reports and displays to managers and many business professionals
DSS Decision Support System give direct computer support to managers during the decision making process, what-if type analysis
EIS Executive Information System provide critical information from a wide variety of internal and external sources in easy to use displays to executives and managers
Management Support Systems When information system applications focus on providing information and support for effective decision making by managers
Expert systems provide expert advice for operational chores like equipment diagnostics or managerial decisions such as loan portfolio management
Knowledge Management Systems knowledge based information systems that support the creation, organization, and dissemination of business knowledge to employees and managers throughout a company
Functional business systems information systems that focus on operation and managerial applications in support of basic business functions such as accounting or marketing
Strategic information systems apply information technology to a firm’s products, services or business processes to help it gain a strategic advantage over its competitors
Cross-functional information systems business applications of information systems in the real world are typically integrated combinations of the several types of information systems
System a set of interrelated components, with a clearly defined boundary, working together to achieve a common set of objectives by accepting inputs and producing outputs in an organized transformation process
Input capturing and assembling elements that enter the system to be processed
Processing involves transformation processes that convert input into output
Output involved transferring elements that have been produced by a transformation process to their ultimate destination
Feedback data about the performance of a system
Control monitoring and evaluating feedback to determine whether a system is moving toward the achievement of its goal
Cybernetic system a system with feedback and control functions
Open system a system that interacts with other systems in its environment
Adaptive system system that has an ability to change itself or its environment to survive
People Resources includes end users and IS specialists and is the essential ingredient for the successful operation of all information systems
Hardware resources all physical devices and materials used in information processing, not only machines, but also all data media
Software resources all sets of information processing instructions
Programs direct and control the computer hardware
Procedures information processing instructions that people need
Data raw facts or observations, typically about physical phenomena or business transactions
Information data that have been converted into a meaningful and useful context for specific end users
Network resources emphasizes that communications technologies and networks are fundamental resource components of all information systems, include communications media, and network infrastructure
Storage the information system activity in which data are retained in an organized manner for later use
Control feedback about its input, processing, output, and storage activities, should be monitored and evaluated to determine if the system is meeting established performance standards
CIO Chief Information Officer (oversees all uses of IT, and aligns IT with strategic business goals)
CSO Chief Security Officer (reports to CIO/CEO)
CKO Chief Knowledge Officer (responsible for finding strategically important knowledge resources)
CLO Chief Learning Officer
CTO Chief Technology Officer (in charge of all IT planning/deployment, manages the IT platform, second in command)
CFO Chief Financial Officer
Business/IT planning process focuses on discovering innovative approaches to satisfying a company’s customer value and business value goal
DBA Database Administrator
Strategy Development developing business strategies that support a company’s business vision
Resource Management Developing strategic plans for managing or outsourcing a company’s IT resources, including IS personnel, hardware, software, data, and network resources
Technology Architecture Making strategic IT choices that reflect an information technology architecture designed to support a company’s business/IT initiatives
Outsourcing the purchase of goods or services that were previously provided internally from third-party partners
Offshoring a relocation of an organization’s business processes to a lower-cost location, usually overseas
Transnational strategy where the company’s business depends heavily on its information systems and internet technologies to help it integrate its global business activities
Global business drivers business requirements caused by the nature of the industry and its competitive or environmental forces
Transborder data flows business data flow across international borders over the telecommunications networks of global information systems
Components of IT Management Managing business and IT strategy, managing application development and technology, managing the IT organization and infrastructure
Components of IT Business/Planning strategic development, resource management, technology architecture
Application development involves… system maintenance, systems analysis and design, prototyping, applications programming, project management, quality assurance
IS Operations Management concerned with the use of hardware, software, network, and personnel resources in data centers
Operational Activities that must be managed computer system operations, network management, production control, production support
Chargeback Systems Allocates costs to users based on the information service rendered
Process Control Capabilities Systems that monitor and automatically control computer operations at large data centers
Globalization Phase 1 Countries were the primary entities globalizing (1492)
Globalization 2 Companies were the primary entities globalizing (1800)
Globalization 3 Individuals and small groups are the primary entities globalizing (2000)
“Flatteners” key factors enabling globalization 3
Challenges of operating the digital world governmental challenges, geoeconomical challenges, demographic challenges, cultural challenges
Microcomputers a very small computer, ranging in size from a “computer on a chip” to handheld, laptop, and desktop units, and servers
Workstation Computers microcomputers that support applications with heavy mathematical computing and graphics display demands, such as computer aided design
Network Servers usually more powerful microcomputers that coordinate telecommunications and resource sharing in small local area networks and in Internet and intranet Web sites
Computer Terminals any device that allows access to a computer, are undergoing a major conversion to networked computer devices
Network terminals may be windows terminals that depend on network servers for Windows software, processing power, and storage, or Internet terminals, which depend on Internet or intranet Web site servers for their operating systems and application software
Network computers microcomputer category designed primarily for use with the internet and corporate intranets by clerical workers, operational employees, and knowledge workers with specialized or limited computing applications
Information appliance small Web-enabled microcomputer devices with specialized functions, such as handheld PDAs, TV set-top boxes, game consoles, cellular and PCS phones, wired telephone appliances, and other Web-enabled home appliances
Midrange Systems primarily high-end network servers and other types of servers that can handle the large scale processing of many business applications, less costly to buy, operate, and maintain
Minicomputers a type of midrange computer that became popular for scientific research, instrumentation systems, engineering analyses, and industrial process monitoring and control
Mainframe Systems large, fast, and powerful computer systems
Supercomputer describes a category of extremely powerful computer systems specifically designed for scientific, engineering, and business applications requiring extremely high speeds for massive numeric computations
Parallel processing execute many instructions at the same time in parallel
Computer system an interrelated combination of components that performs the basic system functions of input, processing, output, storage, and control, thus providing end users with a powerful information processing tool
Control Unit fetch program instructions, decode instructions, retrieve data, store results
Central Processing Unit (CPU) the main processing component of a computer system
Arithmetic Logic Unit performs arithmetic and logic functions required to execute software instructions
Primary Storage Unit memory Secondary Storage
Cache memory high speed, temporary storage of instructions and data elements
Bit short for binary digit, smallest element of data, either zero or one
Byte Group of eight bits which operate as a single unit, represents one character or number
Milliseconds 10-3
Microseconds 10-6
Nanosecond 10-9
Picosecond 10-12
Processing speed how fast a computer system is
Million instructions per second ( MIPS) what most computers can now process program instructions at
Megaherts (MHz) millionths of cycles per second
Gigahertz (GHz) billionths of cycles per second
Clock speed used to rate microprocessors by the speed of their timing circuits or internal clock rather than by the number of specific instructions they can process in one second
Moore’s law observed exponential growth in integrated circuits
Peripherals the generic name given to all input, output, and secondary storage devices that are part of a computer system but are not part of the CPU
Natural user interface used to enter commands directly and easily into a computer system through pointing devices like electronic mice, and touch pads
Graphical User Interface presents you with icons, menus, windows, buttons, and bars for your selection
Optical Scanning read text or graphics and convert them into digital input for your computer
Magnetic Stripe familiar form of data entry that helps computers read credit cards
Kilobyte 2-10
Random Access Memory RAM, volatile memory, can be both read and written, so it is also read/write memory, most widely used
Read Only Memory ROM, nonvolatile random-access memory chips are used for permanent storage, can be read but not erased or overwritten
Sequential Access Devices magnetic tape cartridges
Semiconductor Memory chips primary storage of you computer consists of this
Volatility uninterrupted electric power must be supplied, or the contents of memory will be lost
Magnetic Disks most common form of secondary storage for your computer system
Hard disk drives combine magnetic disks, access arms, and read/write heads into a sealed module, allows higher speeds, greater data recording densities, and closer tolerances within a sealed, more stable environment
Redundant arrays of independent disks RAID, disk arrays of interconnected microcomputer hard disk drives, they combine from 6 to more than 100 small hard disk drives and their control microprocessors into a single unit
Optical Disks fast-growing type of storage media, use several major alternative technologies (CD-ROM)
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) a system for tagging and identifying mobile objects such as store merchandise, postal packages, and sometimes even living organisms
TRADIC first fully transistsorized computer (generates no heat)
ENIAC first electronic computer
PCs seven major components motherboard, CPU, RAM, video card, power supply, hard disk, optical drive
Created by: adekkers
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