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Study Guide Ch 19

Chabner, Language of Medicine 8th Edition, Chpt 19 Cancer Medicine (Oncology)

QuestionAnswer
metastasis this term describes the spread of malignant tumors to a distant location
adenocarcinoma of the lung example of a solid tumor derived from epithelial tissue
fungating tumor mushrooming pattern of growth as tumor cells pile on top of each other
polypoid sessile and pedunculated types of growth
cancinoma in situ localized tumor growth
scirrhous type tumors hard, densely packed tumor cells
staging a tumor assessing the extent of tumor spread
mutagenic producing a change in the DNA of a cell
mutation inheritable change in a cell
oncogenes example of genetic material that causes cancer
exenteration wide resection of tumor and removal of surrounding tissue
fulguration destruction of tissue by electric spark
retinoblastoma an example of a known type of inherited cancer
modality method of treatment
radioresistant tumor tumor requires large doses of radiation to produce death of cells
notation T1N2MO means tumor is present with palpable regional lymph nodes and no metastasis
electrocauterization treating tissue with electrically generated heat
pharmacokinetics study of the distribution of drugs in the body
adjuvant assisting or aiding
linear accelerators term used in treatment of tumors with radiation
estrogen receptor assay tests the concentration of hormone receptor sites in cells of breast cancer patients
staging laparotomy a wide surgical incision of the abdomen to detect disease
interferon biological response modifier
relapse return of symptoms of disease
osteogenic sarcoma cancerous tumor derived from bone
erythema side effect of radiation therapy (redness of skin)
alopecia side effect of chemotherapy or radiotherapy (hair loss)
fibrosis side effect of radiation therapy to the lungs (abnormal growth of connective tissue)
myelosuppresion hypoplasia of bone marrow
mucositis inflammation of the inner lining of an organ
chemical carcinogen an agent (hydrocarbon, insecticide, hormone) that causes cancer
mitosis replication of cells; two identical cells are produced from a parent cell
oncogene region of genetic material that causes cancer; found in tumor cells or viruses
RNA cellular substance (ribonucleic acid) that is important in protein synthesis
virus infectious agent that reproduces by entering a host cell and using the host's genetic material to make copies of itself
DNA genetic material within the nucleus that controls replication and protein synthesis
mutation change in the genetic material of a cell
ultraviolet radiation rays given off by the sun
inflammatory characterized by redness, swelling, and heat
medullary tumors are large, soft, fleshy
necrotic containing dead tissue
fungating mushrooming pattern of growth
ulcerating characterized by large, open, exposed surfaces
cystic tumors form large, open spaces filled with fluid
verrucous tumors resemble wart-like growths
polypoid growths are projections from a base (sessile and pedunculated)
excisional biopsy removal of tumor and a margin of normal tissue for diagnosis and possible cure for small tumors
en bloc resection removal of entire tumor with large area of surrounding tissue and lymph nodes
electrocauterization burning a lesion
fulguration destruction by high-frequency electric sparks
incisional biopsy cutting into tumor and removing a piece to establish diagnosis
cryosurgery freezing a lesion
pelvic exenteration wide resection involving tumor, organ of origin, and surrounding tissue in the area of the hip
beta-HCG test test for the presence of a portion of human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (a marker for testicular cancer)
staging laparotomy incision of the abdomen to determine extent of disease
CA-125 protein marker test to detect ovarian cancer cells in blood
laparoscopy visual examination of the abdominal cavity; peritoneoscopy
estrogen receptor assay test for the presence of a hormone receptor on breast cancer cells
bone marrow biopsy removal and microscopic examination of bone marrow tissue
needle biopsy aspiration of tissue for microscopic examination
PSA test blood test for the presence of an antigen related to prostate cancer
CEA test blood test for cancinoembryonic antigen (marker for GI cancer)
exfoliative cytology cells are scraped off tissue and microscopically examined
radiation energy carried by a stream of particles
Created by: megaly ryan
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